BRAZIL AND THE EU IN TRANSNATIONAL ENERGY GOVERNANCE - 10.12818/P.0304-2340.2017vBIp147
This article explores the transnational dimension of EU and Brazilian energy policies. In an increasing number of areas, energy policymakers cannot make choices which overlook their external impact. The focus of this article is on how national and regional energy policies manage this external dimension. The EU and Brazil are compared to identify similarities and differences in the strategies they employ. More specifically, the article analyses the role of hierarchical and non-hierarchical governance in two energy areas with a strong transnational dimension: the regulation of biofuels and the regulation of foreign energy investments. The main conclusions of the analysis are twofold. Firstly, unilateral initiatives aimed at exporting non-hierarchical governance to transnational regimes only add a layer of rules but do not ensure its integration into the national/regional legal orders. Secondly, states and regional organizations should foster regulatory cooperation through bilateral and multilateral agreements in which the learning processes of non-hierarchical governance play a central role.